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Meroitica 13 - Nomads in the Archaeological Record

List of Figures........................................................................................................7
List of Tables.......................................................................................................10
Preface................................................................................................................12
Chapter 1. Introduction to the Nile/Atbara Triangle....................................................15
A. The history of research in the Nile/Atbara triangle...............21
B. Subsistence hypotheses for the Middle Nile region..............24
Chapter 2. Nomads and Sedentarists.......................................................................31
A. The hypotheses.............................................................32
B. Classes of data.............................................................33
C. Fieldwork area...............................................................35
D. Fieldwork schedule and techniques..................................37
E. Discussion of the sample................................................39
F. Presentation of data......................................................43
Chapter 3. Campsites und Compounds....................................................................44
A. Nomadic campsites........................................................44
B. Sedentarist compounds..................................................53
C. Waste disposal.............................................................58
D. Clusters, settlements and peripheral sites........................63
E. Nomadic/sedentarist interaction zones.............................72
Chapter 4. Nomadic and Sedentary Assemblages......................................................74
A. Tinned or plain metal.....................................................74
B. Enamelled metal...........................................................77
C. Glass...........................................................................78
D. Plastic.........................................................................79
E. Stoneware china............................................................79
F. Gourd..........................................................................80
G. Wood..........................................................................80
H. Leather.......................................................................82
I. Miscellaneous items......................................................84
J. Woven fibre.................................................................84
K. Stone.........................................................................85
L. Earthenware pottery......................................................87
M. Untabulated material categories..................................104
Chapter 5. Discussion of Hypotheses.....................................................................106
Chapter 6. Archaeological Implications...................................................................128
A. Contexts and processes...............................................128
(1) S-A processes........................................................128
(2) A-S processes........................................................131
(3) S-S processes........................................................132
(4) A-A processes........................................................133
B. C-transforms and N-transforms.....................................136
C. Predicted archaeological patterns..................................136
Chapter 7. Environmet and Subsistence.................................................................139
A. Geology and soils.......................................................139
B. Climate.....................................................................143
C. Water resources and drainage......................................146
D. Vegetation.................................................................149
E. Exploitation strategies.................................................150
Chapter 8. Comparative Patterns, Past und Present.................................................155
A. The climate in the Kushite era......................................155
B. Aspects of contemporary nomadism..............................157
C. Transhumance and seasonality in the past....................160
D. Conditions in the Kushite era.......................................163
E. Discussion.................................................................166
Chapter 9. Archaeological Evidence from the Triangle...............................................168
A. Faunal remains an evidence for animal husbandry..........168
B. Botanical remains and evidence for cultivation................170
C. Nature and distribution of sites.....................................170
D. Description of archaeological sites................................177
Chapter 10. Sites Elements and Clusters................................................................198
A. Definition of site elements..........................................198
B. Elements in sites and site clusters................................199
C. Discussion of sites and site clusters..............................202
D. Distribution of site types.............................................206
E. Comparison with an existing distributional model...........207
F. Application of predictive model to the Nile/Atbara.......... 208
G. Discussion of additional implications............................211
Chapter 11. Summary and Conclusions..................................................................214
Appendix: Glossary of Arabic terms used in the text................................................216
Bibliography ......................................................................................................221

 

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